Current Situation


Total electricity production in Erbil (1029) mw, while the overall loss in the grid is around 35% of produced energy; 12% of which are technical losses and 23% are non-technical losses.

The percentage of the population covered by the electric power (in the center and outskirts) is 98%, with an average supply of 22 hours per day for the year 2014. However, the daily supply hours of electricity vary from one district to another.

Only 0.7% of Erbil population depends on the national electricity as the only source of electricity. Most of the population (85.2%) relies on another helping source (shared generators) in addition to the national electricity and 9.6% depends on other two sources in addition to the national electricity13. Shared generators are the most commonly used source of electricity with more than one family share the same generator in the residential area and a special generator for the house in addition to the national electricity.

Daily hours of supply varies during the year, where they decrease during summer times as the pressure on the electricity network increases for air conditioning.


Figure 6 Daily hours of electricity supply by district in Erbil Governorate


Daily Hours Of Electricity Supply By District

13 Information, statistics and indicators for Erbil Governorate 2014, the Ministry of Planning, Kurdistan Statistical Authority, Erbil
Directorate of Statistics


Surface and groundwater constitute the main source of drinking water in Erbil, where the population is supplied with drinking water through public networks, with water network coverage in Erbil amounting to 92.2% of the population served by government network of drinking water.

A percentage of 99.3%, of Erbil population have access to sustainable source of treated water, which is higher than the Region average of 98.1%.
A percentage of 92.1% of the population depends on public water system as the primary source of drinking water, while 7.1% depends on closed water wells.
More than one third of the population (35.6%) gets drinking water from the public network on a daily basis and continuously throughout day hours, while 18.6% has access to water from the public network for 12 to 24 hours per day, and 18.7% has access to drinking water from the public network for less than one hour per day.

Khabat is the district with the lowest coverage of drinking water services through the public network, where less than 80% of the population in Khabat is are connected to the public water network14.

The per capita share of drinking water in Erbil is 250 liters/day, which is equal to the global average of per capita share of drinking water by the World Bank Development Indicators, while such share is less in the outskirts and areas where the average reaches 200 liters/day15.

In terms of the quality of drinking water, the majority of participants in Erbil’s planning process indicated that the quality of water is good and that the population depends on it for drinking. They also pointed out that bottled drinking water, which have recently increased as a general phenomenon is usually used for guests in way of hospitality and not as a common commodity when there are no guests.



Roads and Transportation:
Roads inside Erbil are generally good, yet they face the challenge 
of keeping up with the continuous and rapid expansion
of the city, in addition to the steadily increasing number of vehicles.
As well, toads have to keep up with the growing necessity
to cover the needs of the new residential communities that
sheltered groups of displaced people in a quick and emergency
response to the waves of refugees to the Governorate. The resulting
pressure on infrastructure services in general, including
roads, has multiplied significantly during 2013 and 2014, which
affected the distribution of services to citizens and delayed the
process of achieving full coverage of services to all areas of the
Governorate. In general, up to the year 2012, 62% of raids in Erbil
were paved and has paved sidewalks as well, while 7.4% of
were paved but without sidewalks and 21% were dirt roads16.
Paved roads in Erbil (5391 km) constitute 36.3% of the total
length of paved roads in Kurdistan Region, which amounted to
14,841 km by the end of 2012-17.





14 Governorate Profile – Erbil, 2013, JAU
15 Erbil Water Directorate and Erbil Outskirts Water Directorate, 2015
16 IHSES 2012
17 Socio-Economic Indicators in KRG – Socio-Economic Monitoring System, Ministry of Planning. Kurdistan Regional Statistics Office, Kurdistan Region, Iraq, Dec 2012



Public transport between Erbil and the other governorates in the Region is limited. Means of transportation are small cars of five passengers, which vary in quality and general appearance and there is no public means of transportation; buses or tram. The rapid bus project was among the approved projects in Erbil for 2013, which is planned to provide transportation around the city in circular routes around the castle. Yet, this project was not implemented because of the budget deficit and failure to provide a budget for 2014.

Provision of public transport is a very important future priority to Erbil as a capital city, which shall impact the development of investment movement, especially with regards to workforce required for different investments. Another importance of public transportation lies in alleviating the growing traffic jams on the main streets of the capital and in the reduction of environment pollution.


Only 14.7% of the population rely on public sewage system, while 82.3% rely on covered channels outside the houses. Generally, 98.3% of the population dispose liquid waste through improved means, yet this percentage varies from one district to another, the least of which is in Souran, followed by Rawandiz, then Erbil, while the highest is in Khabat and Choman19. Channels at the sides of the streets, originally designed for disposal of excess rainwater and currently used for the disposal of grey water from houses, has a negative impact on environmental safety and the image of the capital city. Currently, lack of treatment plants for liquid waste or waste water is one of the aspects that needs attention in the next stage to reduce the risk of groundwater contamination, which is the major source of drinking water. Other areas of needed attention include the growing proportion of contamination in the soil, which is one of the important agricultural resource in Erbil.


18 Socio-Economic Indicators in KRG – Socio-Economic Monitoring System, Ministry of Planning. Kurdistan Regional Statistics Office, Kurdistan Region, Iraq, Dec 2012
19 Governorate Profile of Erbil 2013, JAU



21 Family social and economic survey in Iraq (EHSAS) 2012 – Province summary indicators, Ministry of Planning – Kurdistan, Iraq, 2013
22 Information, statistics and indicators for Erbil Governorate 2014, the Ministry of Planning, Kurdistan Statistical Authority, Erbil Directorate of Statistics



Solid waste:

A percentage of 80.8% of Erbil population receive waste collection service, while 8.7% dispose household waste in open places. It is estimated that more than one third of the population in Ghuman and Mirga Sur districts either burn or bury their home waste in open areas20.

Waste collection service is a municipal service that needs to be further developed in the next phase in terms of comprehensiveness, regularity of coverage and the number of times waste is being collected per day. Development should also include separating hazardous waste; such as industrial, medical and household waste, and finally the ways of handling; processing, recycling, and safe burial, etc. Investments in this fields can be encouraged either by the private sector or in partnership between the government and the private sector.


The Region of Kurdistan moved from a state of mass destruction in 2003, where people were in great need for residence into a state where two-thirds of them have their own houses. Currently, 74.1% of families in the Region owns the houses they live in; the highest percentage of such class is in Erbil (75.4%) and the lowest is in Dohuk (71%). As for the remaining percentage of population, they either occupy free houses in agreement with the owner or pay rents for their residences. Most of the families in the Region in general and in Erbil as well live in housing units inhabited by one family21.


There are several means of communication in the Region as a whole; a number of private telecommunication operators are available, the most popular and widely used by the citizens are Asiacell and Korek. Erbil recorded 58,500 fixed phone users, while the Region recorded 6,905,000 mobile phone subscriptions until 2014 for all citizens of Kurdistan22.

Internet is still primarily used for the purposes of social networking and at homes more than at workplaces. A large gap still exists in the technical skills among young people and the elders who make up the majority of public sector employees. Only 11% of the 6-year-old population use internet, where 75.7% of them use it at homes, compared to 16.1% who use it at workplaces. Still, less than 4% of internet users use e-mails, which is the method of modern world communication particularly for business purposes.